The former Bullingdon Club member won 211 to 148, although 41% of his own MPs failed to back him.
The rebellion was unexpectedly large and has laid bare the extent of the divides within his own party.
What happens next for Johnson remains unclear, but he will know that he has come uncomfortably close to having his premiership ended after 1,048 days, which would have been one of the shortest stints ever.
Shortest Prime Ministerial stints in history
The shortest amount of time anyone has been the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is 119 days, an unfortunate accolade held by George Canning who held the title until his death aged 57.
However, what about the Prime Ministers who are a little fresher in the memory – those who have come since the outbreak of the Second World War?
6. James Callaghan – 3 years and 29 days
The Labour Prime Minister was elected in 1976, but was ousted from the role by the unstoppable force of Margret Thatcher.
Life wasn’t easy, with record unemployment and high discontent, he stood no chance against the incoming Iron Lady.
5. Theresa May – 3 years and 11 days
The plight of former Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May will be well remembered by most.
Admitting herself that she was the wrong person to tackle the Brexit deal saga, she gave way to Boris Johnson in June 2019.
4. Neville Chamberlain – 2 years 348 days
Neville Chamberlain is perhaps best known as the Prime Minister at the time of the outbreak of WW2 and remembered particularly for waving his piece of paper from Hitler promising he would not invade further in 1938.
Similarly to Thatcher, he stepped down when circumstances demanded a different figure in Winston Churchill.
3. Gordon Brown – 2 years and 318 days
Gordon Brown is remembered fondly by many, but unfortunately for him never actually won an election.
He took over from Tony Blair, only to find himself in charge of the country in the middle of one of the worst economic crises on record.
He eventually gave way to the coalition government of David Cameron and Nick Clegg.
2. Sir Anthony Eden – 1 year and 279 days
Sir Anthony Eden, a Conservative, saw his job become untenable due to the Suez Canal crisis in the 1950s. He officially stepped down due to poor health, however, rumours swirled that he had misled parliament over collusions with Israel and France.
1. Sir Alec Douglas-Home – 1 year and 1 day
Sir Alec Douglas-Home left the office over major health concerns. Having taken the position in 1963, he clashed with trade unions, having come from an aristocratic background himself.