The reigning US Open champion, 19, conceded the match while at 4-3 down in the first set after experiencing a sudden pain in her side during the opening game.
Raducanu admits the future is uncertain and receiving a rapid diagnosis will be critical in determining the fate of her grass court season.
The world No 11 said: “It was an absolute freak injury, I think. It was in the first game and an absolute freak – I think I pulled something and I’m not sure what exactly happened.
“I don’t know what I could have done more about it, so that’s it. I need to get a scan first – I’ll get it checked out and we’ll see from there.
“I’ve got no idea [about Wimbledon] – it could have just seized up and spasmed. I’ve got no idea and I can’t diagnose myself. I’ll get it checked out.
“I’m not thinking about next week straight away – I’m trying to keep that positive mindset that I’ve been having.
“I’ve been preparing really well for this tournament and feeling good and comfortable – I think that even when I was out there, there were signs I was pretty happy with in terms of playing aggressively.
“It’s just a shame and something random in the first game.”
Raducanu raced into the lead in Nottingham before falling behind while being visibly inhibited by the injury.
She faced a medical timeout in the first set before being forced to retire and allowing Swiss player Golubic, the world No.55, to progress to the last 16.
Raducanu relished turning out in front of a home crowd once again and hopes an upturn in fortunes can fire her back to the big time.
“I was feeling really good, to be honest, to go out and play and open up my grass season at home,” added Raducanu, who is on the LTA’s Elite Support Programme.
“The welcome I got was real nice and I felt really comfortable. I’m okay – I’m obviously disappointed and it’s really bad luck sometimes.
“I feel like I’ve been putting really good work in and just want to catch a break. I haven’t really and that’s out of my control.
“I can only focus on what I’m doing – I think I’m putting in a lot of good work and I have to trust that it will come. It’s happening for a reason but I’m exactly where I need to be.”
For the latest action on the British summer grass court season, check out the LTA website.